This is a Bendix MG-1 Air Data Computer. It was first used in the F-86 Sabre jet fighter. The F-86 was effectively the first U.S. jet fighter, first deployed in 1949.
I actually have two (slightly different versions) of the MG-1. Figures 1 and 2 show a complete unit. Figures 3-6 show a second unit where I have cut the sealed container to expose the wonderful innards. Inside is a mixture of mechanical pressure sensors (the two cylinders at the top of Figure 3), many mechanical calculating mechanisms, and a number of electrical sensors.